In San Francisco, the largest city on the west coast with a population of 150,000, five people were killed and property losses were significant. (I’ll return to that.) Section I (Stops 1–4) consists of stops that are part of the University of California at Berkeley (UC-Berkeley), including research facilities, retrofit of campus buildings, and geomorphic features along the fault. Brocher, T.M., Boatwright, J., Lienkaemper, J.J., Prentice, C.S., Schwartz, D.P., and Bundock, H.P., 2018, The Hayward Fault—Is it due for a repeat of the powerful 1868 earthquake? The urban infrastructure in the Bay Area has been tested only by the relatively remote, 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the smaller 2014 magnitude 6.0 South Napa earthquake. The Seismic Hazard Mapping Program addresses the secondary earthquake hazards of liquefaction (the inability of water-saturated, heavily shaken soil to support structures) and landslides. (Public domain.). A major seaport and rail terminal as well as a county seat, Oakland is aware of its vulnerability and is slowly getting better prepared for the inevitable large earthquake on the Hayward fault. (denoted “Type A” faults by the USGS). These data are a geospatial representation of liquefaction potential for the HayWired earthquake scenario, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault on April 18, 2018, with an epicenter in the city of Oakland, CA. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that the fault may be ready to produce another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. Shaking from the 1868 quake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. The 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake is a reminder of the tremendous power that lurks beneath the Earth’s surface in the San Francisco Bay region. The occasion on Friday was a photo op for the press. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. Pool Pumps Pool Heaters Pool Cleaners Pool Sanitization Pool Automation ... Hayward websites have been developed in compliance with standards for Internet Explorer 10 or later. Its last major rupture occurred in 1868, during California's frontier days, and was the original "Great San Francisco Earthquake" until 1906. This is a good place to see the fault in its natural setting, where a big quake will do little more than knock you on your butt. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. However, as in 1906, well-constructed buildings on firm ground sustained much less damage. Shaking was felt as far away as Nevada, and aftershocks rattled the Bay Area for weeks. The Hayward fault is a 90 kilometer long crack in the Earth's crust that travels through the San Francisco Bay area. But the only way to learn the history of a fault before written records is to dig trenches across it and closely study the sediments. Popular mentions . ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Study of excavations across the Hayward Fault has provided a record of strong earthquakes, all estimated at magnitude of 6.3 or greater, going back hundreds of years—some historical events are shown for reference. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. Hayward Fault connection. Fault creep The earthquake occurred at 7:53 a.m. on October 21, 1868. Ground cracking caused by this earthquake was traced for 20 miles along the Hayward Fault, from Warm Springs in Fremont north to San Leandro. The forces associated with the fault have pushed up the East Bay hills on the east and dropped down the San Francisco Bay block on the west. Hayward is the 37th biggest city in California by how many people live there. Although the region was then sparsely populated, this quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California?s history. Frightened people ran out of their homes, and cattle and even fire-engine horses panicked and bolted. 3) reverse fault Joyce Blueford and Mitch Craig lead NCGS members, family, and the general public on a field trip to examine evidence of the Hayward Fault in the East Bay. We’ve updated this video: https://youtu.be/GhFMtCmHc9cOctober 21st will mark the 141st Anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake. This is an easy walk and a good opportunity to educate yourself and your children. Log in Ask Question. Prenez le volant d’une voiture de type Camionette lorsque vous arrivez à Hayward Fault Exposed. The Hayward Fault is shorter than the San Andreas, running about 70 kilometers from Fremont to Point Pinole, and is therefore not expected to produce the magnitude-8-plus quakes we know the San Andreas can generate. Oakland, a town of about 12,000 and mainly wood-frame buildings, was much less heavily damaged than San Leandro and Hayward. In 1996, an 18-millimeter creep event, the largest ever observed on the Hayward fault, occurred between surveys 63 days apart. Many brick walls, cornices, and other heavy architectural elements of buildings in the city fell, and the U.S. After the 1868 quake, and a previous one in 1865, damaged San Francisco, engineers worked to strengthen buildings throughout the Bay Area. The inset photo shows the courthouse before the quake. The fault passes through the University of California Berkeley football stadium (left), and past earthquake movements have significantly offset Hamilton Gulch (center). On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay region. Réservez votre propriété de vacances en ligne. Its last major earthquake occurred on October 21st, 1868, destroying downtown Hayward, killing 5 people and, injuring 30. Strong shaking lasted more than 40 seconds, devastating several East Bay towns. … It splays to the east and trends between N. 20° and 35°W along some 119 km. The Hayward fault is a transform or strike-slip fault that moves sideways, rather than the more common faults that move up on one side and down on the other. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 quake is in 2018; scientists are convinced that the Hayward Fault has reached the point where a powerful, damaging earthquake can be expected at any time. Although it has been known for some time that the Calaveras and Hayward faults merge in the South Bay region, recent geological studies suggest that the Calaveras and Hayward faults may be even more closely connected horizontally deep beneath the surface, angling toward each other with depth until they become a single fault. The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North … mini wrote a review Jan 2020. Strike-Slip Faults. It suggests that either the fault is creeping there, or there has been recent seismic slip.” In fact, according to Watt et al., even the most recent prehistoric earthquakes along the Rodgers Creek fault and Hayward faults, which struck sometime between 1715 and 1776, could have been a single combined event given dating uncertainties. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. Recent studies show that such powerful Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past. The purple line is the little-known Miller Creek fault. USGS earthquake science tells us that it’s now urgent to prepare for the next magnitude 7 quake on the Hayward Fault. Major earthquake faults in the San Francisco Bay region. Two factors combine to make the Hayward Fault very dangerous. As the complex evolved, the Hayward fault at times may have been the principal active trace, as the San Andreas fault is today—and might be again.Transform plate boundaries are an important element of plate tectonics, the theoretical framework that explains the motions and behavior of Earth's outermost shell. 2) normal fault. In addition to creating scenarios, regular practice drills by whole communities are essential. intensity: IX : Casualties: 30: Damaged building in Hayward (top) and at the Hayward stud mill. To estimate the shaking intensity, it is necessary to consider the construction of the damaged buildings, that is, whether they were adobe, brick, or wood. Until it was eclipsed by the great 1906 earthquake, the 1868 earthquake was known as the “great San Francisco quake.” The area of strongest shaking covered about 1,000 square miles. 9 8 R - 1 3 SSaa n LLeeanddrroo S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y o y 5 D A P 0 0 7. The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. Hundreds of homes and other structures are built along the fault trace, and mass transit corridors, major freeways, and many roadways cross it at numerous locations. Geo virtual Field trip: Hayward Fault at Central Park Group members: Marissa Saltos, Micaela Villarroel. ShakeMap showing the inferred intensity of ground shaking in the 1868 earthquake (measured as MMI, or Modified Mercalli Intensity), compared to a ShakeMap for the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. The 1868 earthquake on the Hayward Fault capped a decade-long sequence of seven increasingly strong quakes in the Bay Area. Since then, nearly three million people have moved next to the Hayward fault with little regard for its earthquake potential. Some textbook examples of fault-related features occur in Hayward, at the center of the fault, and are easily seen within walking distance of the Bay area's light-rail line, BART. Contributed by Dale Smith Photos by Phil Garbutt. (Public domain.). That report stated that there’s a 31 percent chance the Hayward Fault will produce a magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquake in the next three decades.The fault runs parallel to and east of the San Andreas Fault. Note that the interval between successive quakes has varied from 95 to 183 years, averaging 150 years, and it is now more than 150 years since the 1868 earthquake. 1) strike-slip fault. Earthquake. Is the Hayward Fault the Nation’s Most Dangerous Fault? Because seismographs had not yet been invented, there are no recordings of the 1868 earthquake. Geodetic Constraints on San Francisco Bay Area Fault Slip Rates and Potential Seismogenic Asperities on the Partially Creeping Hayward Fault  Evans, Eileen Louise; Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J. USGS scientists have found evidence for 12 quakes on the southern Hayward Fault during the past 1,900 years. The Hayward Fault will rupture violently again, and perhaps soon. Fremont, California 94,085 contributions 3,693 helpful votes. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 earthquake, and all historical earthquake anniversaries, are opportunities to remind people that we live in earthquake country and we should all be prepared for the next big quake. At San Leandro, with a population of about 400, the second floor of the Alameda County Courthouse collapsed, and many other buildings were destroyed. Much of what we know about the 1868 quake is documented in a chapter of an important report on the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which was published in 1908. Hayward has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 6 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 17 earthquakes in the past 30 days; 319 earthquakes in the past 365 days Filter. The Hayward Fault has ruptured about every 140 years for its previous five large earthquakes. Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, USGS General Information Products 15, 41, and 42. These measures combined to ensure that buildings built in San Francisco between 1868 and 1906 survived the powerful shaking of the 1906 San Francisco quake, with the exception of the San Francisco City Hall. All reviews central park fascinating. If that is the case, the longer fault system could produce larger temblors. All three faults are right-lateral strike-slip faults. The population at greatest risk from a Hayward Fault earthquake is 100 times greater than in 1868. The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller … October 21, 2008, marks the 140th Anniversary of the 1868 approximate Magnitude 7 earthquake. Almost every building in Hayward, then a town with about 500 residents, was wrecked or severely damaged—few places have paid so dearly to have a fault named after them. Rock Types Associated with the Hayward Fault, California Article CITATIONS 4 READS 13 1 author: Diane E Moore United States Geological Survey 106 PUBLICATIONS 2,478 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: Diane E Moore Retrieved on: 19 September 2016. The Hayward Fault pretty much runs through the center of downtown Fremont and many of its suburban neighborhoods where this walk is located. Motion over millions of years has brought different sets of rocks next to each other on the fault trace. of the Hayward fault from Lienkaemper and others (1991); gray lines, major highways and roads. (Public domain. Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. Over 8.7 million Californians and nearly 54 million globally are already planning to participate. Notably, the last six quakes (in 1134, 1317, 1475, 1629, 1725, and 1868) occurred at intervals of 95 to 183 years, with an average interval of about 150 years. The same may be true for the Rodgers Creek fault to the north. Critical regional gas and water pipelines and electrical transmission lines cross the fault. The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. The chapter reviewed the descriptions of surface faulting, collected damage and felt reports, and interviewed survivors of the earthquake. (Public domain.). The crustal structure across the northern Hayward Fault zone, in the vicinity of Berkeley, is rather complex with a lateral bedrock velocity contrast of approximately 30 across the fault zone with the SW side fast and also with an attenuation contrast across the fault zone with the NE side having higher attenuation as evidenced by the variability in the observed seismic ground motions shown in Figure 16.2. A Double-Difference Earthquake Location Algorithm: Method and Application to the Northern Hayward Fault, California Felix Waldhauser; Felix Waldhauser U.S. Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Rd., MS977 Menlo Park, California, 94025 felix@andreas.wr.usgs.gov ellsworth@usgs.gov . The next time it produces a large quake, the damage and destruction could be staggering - estimated economic losses from an 1868-strength earthquake (6.8 magnitude) could exceed 120 billion dollars. In 1868, the little settlement of Haywards was nearest to the epicenter of the earthquake. Activity on the different segments of the fault includes moderate and large earthquakes as well as aseismic creep. : U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3052, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183052. USGS scientists describe the Hayward fault as a tectonic time bomb, due anytime for another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. Families; Couples; Solo; Business; Friends; Time of year. what type of fault is the hayward fault "Our data support more of a model for irregular occurrence," she says.Nearby faults add another level of uncertainty. Dot size indicates the present relative population sizes of cities. Meanwhile, much of the fault moves slowly, without earthquakes, in the form of aseismic creep. The last large event was the 1984 Morgan Hill event and the last moderate earthquake was the 2007 Alum Rock event. The map shows that shaking was strongest in Hayward, Fremont, and San Leandro, and weaker but damaging in Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose. 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